The Business Imperative Behind the Ethereum Vision

Particular due to Vitalik Buterin, Gavin Wooden and Jeffrey Wilcke for numerous revisions suggestions, picks at their brains, and serving to me learn their tea leaves.


In the world of cryptography-based laptop science, the Ethereum expertise imaginative and prescient has captivated the creativeness of numerous software program builders and technologists who noticed its apparent promise. However those self same guarantees and their enterprise interpretations (and implications) haven’t broadly reached, nor been effectively understood by non-technical audiences.

As Ethereum nears popping out of the “labs” and into the market, it’s much more vital that its message be broadly understood by the enterprise group.

The objective of this text is to reply why Ethereum issues, why non-technical folks ought to care, and why we want one other world blockchain, even when Bitcoin already is one. These are a couple of key questions, and for every one in every of them, the extra you dive into the solutions, the extra you begin to perceive them, and the extra you’ll respect Ethereum’s distinctive place, whereas studying that its strategy has deserves and longevity.


Ethereum is an alternate decentralized ledger protocol, not an alternate cryptocurrency. Ethereum’s ideological lineage accommodates as a lot BitTorrent, Java and Freenet because it does Bitcoin. From a product perspective, it’s a general-purpose, world blockchain that may govern each monetary and non-financial forms of software states.

In its essence, Ethereum powers decentralized enterprise logic, also called sensible contracts, represented as cryptographic “boxes” that include worth and solely unlock it if sure circumstances are met. This enterprise logic executes on the blockchain cloud (no server internet hosting is required), and routinely enforces the phrases of a given settlement between a lot of events. They’re a constructing block for “ÐApps”, the new type of Decentralized Purposes that Ethereum excels at. And from a front-end (consumer) viewpoint, Ethereum has a robust special-purpose browser enabling customers to put in and work together with any ÐApp in a user-friendly method.

The final result of this new patchwork of applied sciences is an rising Web3 infrastructure which Ethereum is especially good at enabling. It’s primarily based on a 3-tier structure, comprising a complicated browser as the consumer, the blockchain ledger as a shared useful resource, and a digital community of computer systems that run sensible enterprise logic packages in a decentralized approach.

In comparison with Bitcoin, Ethereum has constructed a brand new crypto-technology primarily based framework that gives even bigger features in ease of growth in addition to even stronger light-client properties, whereas at the identical time permitting functions to share a viable financial atmosphere, and strong blockchain safety.

The genius behind Ethereum is that this magical community of computer systems that permits a brand new sort of software program functions: the really decentralized ones, primarily based on embedding the logic of belief inside small packages and distributing them to run on its blockchain.

This has a number of implications; for builders, unimaginable value financial savings and effectivity in writing new functions; and for non-technical customers, an opportunity to reimagine present companies, or create new alternatives, primarily based on unbundling central capabilities and relegating them to decentralized constructs. Ethereum helps anybody wishing to develop decentralized functions, encode arbitrarily complicated contractual enterprise logic, launch autonomous brokers, and handle relationships that shall be mediated totally by the blockchain.

Ethereum is a type of specialised cloud computing, albeit one that enables substantial features in effectivity and cost-effectiveness, the place very robust ensures of safety and reliability are required. And it comes with an entire suite of instruments for constructing functions on it.

The Ethereum transaction ledger can be utilized to securely execute all kinds of providers together with: voting techniques, area identify registries, monetary exchanges, crowdfunding platforms, firm governance, self-enforcing contracts and agreements, mental property, sensible property, and distributed autonomous organisations.

Ethereum is spurring enterprise and societal innovation at the world stage, whereas opening the door to a brand new class of functions, by no means seen earlier than. In the long run, the ensuing final result will influence financial and management buildings.

1000’s of entrepreneurs and builders are already creating and implementing new concepts, tasks and startups primarily based on Ethereum. And for present organizations, enterprise and IT leaders and entrepreneurs are inspired to discover how Ethereum permits them to reengineer or innovate on prime of their present providers, in an effort to stay aggressive in the future.

Understanding Ethereum

So, why is it so obscure Ethereum? For the identical cause that it’s obscure Bitcoin, and for the identical cause the Web was tough to know by the normal public till a minimum of 3 years after the starting of its commercialization. That cause is: all of them have a number of useful identities. Granted, that reply shouldn’t be notably enlightening, however it’s factual: Bitcoin, Ethereum and the Web imply various things for various folks. However their narrative is powerful, as a result of their influence is multi-faceted and much reaching. So let’s dissect Ethereum in an effort to make it extra understandable.

Ethereum vs. Bitcoin

As a place to begin, and solely as a reference, we might start by evaluating Ethereum to Bitcoin, as a result of Bitcoin appears to have been understood, a minimum of by those that wished to know it.

At first sight, one can simply be duped by obvious similarities as a result of each Bitcoin and Ethereum are open supply platforms which have 4 widespread staples: an underlying cryptocurrency, an inherent blockchain, a decentralized consensus-based proof mechanism, and miners that assist the community; due to this fact they have to be comparable. However that may be a fallacious conclusion. As quickly as you dig deeper, actuality reveals that Bitcoin and Ethereum are extra dissimilar than comparable. Every one in every of these 4 staples has a essentially totally different objective when it comes to what it permits, and for that cause, Ethereum is headed into a unique route than Bitcoin.

For background, Bitcoin was initially designed as a decentralized cryptocurrency community for transacting financial worth, and the predominant objective of the Bitcoin blockchain was that spine of belief for these monetary transactions. It was solely extra lately that Bitcoin’s blockchain began to seek out use circumstances in non-financial functions referring to decentralized belief and as a retailer of worth. Due to this fact, the programmability elements of the Bitcoin blockchain itself have been nearly an after-thought, though sidechain proposals are hoping to make this programmability just a little simpler. In distinction, Ethereum was conceived from Day 1 as a software program growth platform for decentralized functions, and its blockchain was particularly designed to assist executing apps on it. So, the Ethereum design had the luxurious of studying from Bitcoin’s expertise and remedied a few of its shortcomings. For instance, the Ethereum blockchain is quicker at performing verifications, right down to a typical vary between 5 and 30 seconds, as in comparison with Bitcoin’s 10 minutes.

The Ethereum paradigm revolves round being a community for powering decentralized functions in want of a deterministic, auditable and predictable compute platform, and that’s totally different from the essence of the Bitcoin paradigm whose trivial compute equipment is currency-centric. Due to this fact, you can’t blindly apply Bitcoin analogies pertaining to the function of mining, the cryptocurrency utilization, and the programmability capabilities of the respective blockchains in an effort to totally perceive Ethereum.

First, the Ethereum’s cryptocurrency (known as “ether”) shouldn’t be much like the Bitcoin forex as a result of its predominant objective shouldn’t be for fee of products or providers, nor to be a “digital gold” model, two options that Bitcoin excels at, and that Ethereum does not even try to offer. Ether is extra like an incentive plumbing in the type of required “crypto-fuel” to pay for the transaction charges essential to run the varied sensible enterprise logic packages that customers undergo its blockchain.

An in depth analogy is to check ether to cloud-based computational prices. Whenever you run an software in the cloud, you’re charged primarily based on a mixture of time, storage, information switch and computing pace necessities. The novelty with ether-based costing is that you’re paying to run the enterprise logic on the blockchain. It’s a type of cloud-based micro-value pricing that un-bundles a layer from the conventional cloud computing stack.

Along with being that community gasoline, ether will even be tradeable as a cryptocurrency on a wide range of open exchanges, however it’s anticipated that its worth appreciation shall be extra rationally influenced by the quantity and richness of transaction calls for than by forex speculators (which is the reverse to what has occurred to Bitcoin).

Second, the Ethereum blockchain is totally programmable by design, and extra economically environment friendly than Bitcoin. It’s arguably extra scalable, a key requirement pertaining to the long run affordability of a busy blockchain. As a result of it’s not centered on fulfilling monetary transactions, the Ethereum blockchain’s objective is totally different than Bitcoin’s. Technically, Ethereum doesn’t have a restrict on the block dimension, and it’ll alter dynamically as a complete, as a part of its core design. As well as, Ethereum is continuous to work on enhancing the scalability elements, and that can have a direct advantage of reducing the general transaction prices.

Usually, when fascinating options for a blockchain, the following traits come to thoughts, and they’re ones that Ethereum excels at:

  • Programmability
  • Scalability
  • Upgradability
  • Transactions Manageability
  • Visibility
  • Affordability
  • Safety
  • Pace/Efficiency
  • Excessive Availability
  • Extensibility

Third, whereas proof-of-work is Ethereum’s present consensus course of selection, it’s deliberate to evolve right into a much less wasteful methodology generally known as the “proof-of-stake”. Proof-of-stake has been confirmed to be an environment friendly and viable consensus methodology that’s cheaper to function whereas being dearer to assault.

Lastly, mining in the Ethereum context might be executed by common computer systems, and doesn’t require the specialised computational horsepower that Bitcoin requires, due to this fact Ethereum’s mining shall be extra reasonably priced and accessible to the plenty. Anybody operating the Ethereum mining consumer software program on their laptop can turn into an Ethereum miner, nearly like BitTorrent permits any person to brazenly share their media recordsdata. It is a good technique, as a result of it makes Ethereum extra reasonably priced, by not being overly depending on costly mining. This additionally signifies that, in contrast to Bitcoin; Ethereum doesn’t depend upon accumulating a number of mining energy to work. It’s extra biased in direction of self-maintenance through a wholesome steadiness of reasonably priced mining and pay-per-play computing necessities.

Ethereum as Freenet

There’s one other fascinating (and maybe surprising) Ethereum analogy, and it’s in direction of Freenet. For background, Freenet was an earlier approach of creating decentralized web sites. It was free software program that allowed customers to anonymously share recordsdata, browse and publish “freesites” (internet sites accessible solely via Freenet) and chat on boards, with out concern of censorship, and with much less vulnerability to assault. Freenet’s philosophical underpinning was to allow and defend censorless freedom of speech, and to unfold information.

Freenet’s ideology had deserves, but it surely additionally had two predominant flaws with identified causes that Ethereum cures. First, downloading an internet site would usually take multiple minute. Second, it had no functions, and contained static content material solely. Ethereum addresses these points squarely through its native incentivization, and through its blockchain which is a spine for enabling functions.

Extra Ethereum Differentiation

So, what are extra options of Ethereum that differentiate it additional and make it a lovely selection for growing decentralized functions?

The Improvement Languages

Arguably, Ethereum’s software program growth language capabilities are one in every of its greatest differentiating options, as a result of programming the blockchain is a primordial goal. Ethereum does not have one, but it surely has 4 such special-purpose languages: Serpent (Python impressed), Solidity (JavaScript impressed), Mutan (Go impressed) and LLL (Lisp impressed).

As one in every of the high-level programming languages used for Ethereum, Serpent (as advised by its identify) is designed to be similar to Python. It’s meant to be maximally clear and easy, combining a lot of the effectivity advantages of a low-level language with ease-of-use in programming model.

Solidity is the most well-liked language, being designed from the ground-up for contract-oriented programming and the one underneath the most growth. It inherits all the Serpent qualities, however with the same syntax to JavaScript which supplies it a well-recognized adoption benefit that minimizes the barrier to entry, as a result of JavaScript is usually utilized by Internet builders. Due to this fact, Solidity leverages an present skillset that thousands and thousands of programmers already possess.

One other key function of the Ethereum blockchain is its “Turing-completeness”, an vital attribute wanted to make sure a excessive diploma of common solvability whereas operating the required computation puzzles. Extra exactly, it’s “quasi” Turing-complete, as a result of via setting up-front limits on the quantity of computation allowed, it avoids the non-termination downside of a totally Turing-complete language.

Moreover, as a result of Ethereum’s languages are particularly designed for that blockchain, they supply unimaginable real-time granularity on transaction visibility and exercise, a fascinating function that Bitcoin has some challenges with. With Bitcoin, you could import the blockchain database, parse all transactions and question them in an effort to extract exercise intelligence on it;  whereas with Ethereum, it’s possible you’ll concern particular tackle requests in real-time on the stay blockchain.

Ethereum Permits ÐApps

The accessible multiplicity of Ethereum growth languages is vital as a result of it permits builders to select the ones they like in an effort to extra simply and effectively write Decentralized Purposes (ÐApps).

A ÐApp is the mixed set of sensible contracts and client-side code that permits them. Good contracts are like cryptographic “boxes” that include a price and solely unlock it if sure circumstances are met. They sometimes encapsulate some logic, guidelines, a course of, or an settlement between events. When they’re launched on Ethereum, the community enforces their ramifications.

A ÐApp might be considered architecturally as being similar to a standard net software, with one distinction: in a standard net software, you’ve gotten consumer facet Javascript code that’s run by customers inside their browsers and server-side code that’s run by a number or firm; however in a ÐApp, you as an alternative have sensible logic operating on the blockchain, and consumer facet code operating in Mist, the particular browser.

Moreover, a ÐApp can work together or join with different net apps or different decentralised applied sciences. For e.g., a ÐApp could use a decentralized messaging service reminiscent of Whisper on this Ethereum’s context, or a decentralized file distribution like IPFS. On the net apps facet, an organization reminiscent of Google may need to get information from a decentralized status service, or a Bloomberg information feed could need to interface with a monetary ÐApp.

The Ethereum Consumer

Ethereum features a particular objective consumer browser that permits customers to run the number of accessible ÐApps and launch sensible contracts. This browser (known as Mist) is a user-friendly launching pad that guarantees to creating sensible contracts and ÐApps broadly accessible to a broad group of customers. Mist is ground-breaking when it comes to reducing the person adoption barrier. Its influence isn’t in contrast to what the net browser did for accessing the Web in a user-friendly method, or what iTunes represented for downloadable digital content material. Mist has particular safety layers, key administration, decentralized account administration (i.e. the person accounts are owned by the person and never a central third celebration authority), and contains blockchain-related elements that can make it an indispensable instrument for operating or managing blockchain-specific decentralized functions for the common person who doesn’t want to know technical elements.

From a person expertise viewpoint, you utilize ÐApps from inside Mist simply as you work together with web sites through an everyday browser. For e.g., a pure ÐApp reminiscent of Augur (a prediction market) lives inside the Ethereum Mist browser. Nonetheless, there may also exist providers delivered via an everyday browser in a extra conventional net 2.0 method which might be nonetheless powered by and auditable via Ethereum.

The Ethereum Digital Machine

Whenever you consider these self-contained logic scripts that run on the blockchain, retailer information on it, and return some worth(s) to the originator, it’s like operating a program nearly in the cloud. Merely mentioned, these sensible contracts are the code operating on the Ethereum Digital Machine (EVM). Due to this fact, that is much like a decentralized digital computation service, besides that it’s with out the burden of net servers, and it’s designed to be run by all individuals in a peer-to-peer community that can learn and write information and code to the blockchain safely and securely (through cryptographically secured digital signatures).

The idea of the Ethereum Digital Machine (EVM) is a vital one, as a result of it’s one other major innovation of the Ethereum venture. In the event you do not perceive the EVM, you do not perceive Ethereum.

So, the EVM “sits on the blockchain”, but it surely’s really made-up of a number of interconnected computer systems that anybody can add packages to, leaving these packages to self-execute, and guaranteeing that present and all earlier states of each program are all the time publicly seen. These packages run on the blockchain and proceed to execute in precisely the approach that the EVM specifies. This permits anybody to create their very own enterprise logic for possession, transaction codecs and state transition capabilities.

The Ethereum Core and its Ecosystem

At its inside core, Ethereum is a multi-layered, cryptography-based, technical protocol that’s open supply. Its varied useful items are totally built-in by design, and the sum of its elements turns it right into a complete platform for constructing and deploying fashionable decentralized functions.

It was designed as a general-purpose decentralized software platform, with a full suite of instruments that reach its performance and energy.

Though Ethereum appears to be like like a mixture of a number of interconnected open supply tasks, its evolution has been clearly guided by a crystal imaginative and prescient to make sure that all the items match collectively synergistically.

Like every main software program platform, the Ethereum core is augmented by a wealthy ecosystem comprised of a group of companions, expertise interchange extensions, functions and ancillary providers round it. Extra exactly, from a useful perspective, one might break up the Ethereum ecosystem into three components:

  1. Core Protocol Applied sciences: P2P consensus, Digital Machine, Contracts, Keys, Blockchain, Software program Languages and Improvement Environments, Foreign money (Gas), Know-how Integration and Middleware Providers.
  2. Purposes: Consumer software program (Mist or AlethZero), Mining, Monitoring Providers, ÐApps and different third celebration Purposes.
  3. Ancillary Providers: Principally centered on Training, Analysis, Studying and Assist through wikis, boards, the Eth Academy, internet sites, bounty incentives, and a future builders convention.

Of specific curiosity is the Purposes section whose dimension has already snowballed to over 100 varied third-party tasks, merchandise, expertise extensions and totally fledged companies which might be primarily based on Ethereum both totally or partially. They embrace functions reminiscent of Prediction Markets, Decentralized Exchanges, Crowdfunding, Web of Issues, Voting and Governance, Gaming, Repute Methods, Social Networking, Chat Messaging, Insurance coverage, Healthcare, Arts, Ridesharing, Distributed Autonomous Organizations, Buying and selling (monetary devices or commodities), Accounting, Communities, eCommerce, Bodily Safety, File Storage, Possession Stamping, Content material, Microtransactions, Group Administration, Cloud Computing, Remittances, Good Contracts Administration, Good Belongings, Wallets, Meals, Manufacturing, Knowledge Storage, Messaging, Provide Chain and others.

(A future weblog publish will cowl in additional particulars the complete Ethereum ecosystem, together with the companion items).

All these elements level unequivocally to a wholesome development and progress of the Ethereum footprint into a wide range of monetary and non-financial business segments. Ethereum’s programming capabilities presents vastly extra energy than that provided by Bitcoin scripting due to the added powers of Turing-completeness, value-awareness, blockchain-awareness and state transition logic capabilities.

Why Ought to Business Individuals Care?

Ethereum’s expertise was constructed for builders primarily. However similar to Data Know-how, Ethereum is an enabler of enterprise alternatives, and as a lot as its preliminary assist is vastly pushed by a group of technologists, Ethereum’s influence will get multiplied as soon as enterprise professionals additionally perceive the potential of decentralizing functions, together with processes they permit.

We have to discover ways to apply what the blockchain expertise provides us. Ethereum builders and expertise fanatics acknowledge that what they see shouldn’t be sufficient in an effort to reveal the complete spectrum of the functions potential. Builders want enterprise folks as companions who perceive Ethereum’s capabilities, and are keen to use their very own expertise in direction of that understanding.

Throughout the 90’s, the company reengineering development caught on. It was pushed by a want to abolish previous processes that provided little worth, and exchange them by simplified ones. Out of the blue, each giant group was reviewing their enterprise processes, and figuring out the ones that have been sluggish, centralized, costly, archaic, or didn’t meet customers and clients wants. Inside the imaginative and prescient of Ethereum, lies a reengineering promise parallel.

The final result could be to embark on the same “crash and burn” train to seek out previous functions which might be sluggish, costly, archaic or not assembly the required wants, and determine in the event that they may very well be re-thought through ÐApps or really decentralized functions.

Business folks should find out about decentralization, and ask if previous processes might be changed by decentralized ones, enabled by Ethereum. Of particular curiosity are the forms of functions that beforehand relied on central intermediaries or gatekeepers that held ultimate authority on trust-related processes. Ethereum permits the unbundling of belief, and repurposes it to run on the community.

When you perceive learn how to unbundle central processes, and relegate them to the edges of the community, you’re solely sure by the limits of your creativeness. Now could be the time to shoot your self in the foot, because it’s higher than to have another person shoot you in the head, tomorrow.

Progressive enterprise and IT managers ought to determine technical assets on their groups that have to find out about Ethereum, and fund tasks and implementations that promote innovation and reengineering efforts to find and unlock the full potential of decentralized functions.

In the event you fall in one in every of these classes, you’re in a superb place to start out diving into Ethereum:

  1. Present IT departments
  2. Startups with new concepts
  3. Ahead-thinking builders
  4. Present Bitcoin fanatics
  5. Business innovators, leaders, buyers and visionaries
  6. NGOs, activists, researchers, and coverage makers

The greatest place to begin for studying about growing on Ethereum is the Ethereum Wiki.

What are you able to do with Ethereum?

Ethereum permits innovation through decentralized functions, equally touching business, authorities and society segments.

It is very important perceive the place decentralization and blockchains make the most sense, as a result of we shouldn’t push these ideas on every thing.

From a expertise viewpoint, decentralization is especially helpful for “base layer” providers, i.e. what every thing else depends on, reminiscent of id, status, communications, social networks, markets, and making them work with out counting on particular trusted intermediaries in the center. From a software program functions perspective, blockchains are helpful for imposing decentralized consensus on databases that replace themselves based on order-dependent state transition capabilities (the place the pace of updates better than one minute is appropriate), and that is the place the community for powering Ethereum-based sensible contracts can shine. These can be utilized to securely execute all kinds of providers together with: voting techniques, area identify registries, monetary exchanges, crowdfunding platforms, firm governance, self-enforcing agreements, mental property, sensible property, and distributed autonomous organizations.

A part of the Ethereum imaginative and prescient is much like Bitcoin’s when it comes to enabling decentralization, however the satan is in the implementation particulars. The Ethereum platform has been designed from the ground-up to allow decentralized functions, whereas Bitcoin’s genesis was a monetary community that has been overloaded and overlaid with extra providers and capabilities which might be stretching its capabilities. Protocols “built on top” of Bitcoin usually are not light-client pleasant, and the Bitcoin blockchain is solely not designed to be scalable sufficient to assist each transaction for each doable use case.

Builders are selecting Ethereum as a result of it’s simpler to program superior decentralized functions on Ethereum than on Bitcoin.  To suppose that Bitcoin’s blockchain can do all of what Ethereum is delivering is misinformed considering.

Truly, a contrarian (however logical) view could be to suppose that Bitcoin wants Ethereum to succeed, as a result of that will increase the proof factors and legitimacy for the viability of consensus-based functions growth. Ethereum builders and companions are fixing and implementing huge points on this house, and their success will encourage the world crypto-technology ecosystem in its entirety.

Builders determine with their code. Success will come primarily based on the deserves of every software or enterprise initiative. Whether or not an software runs on Bitcoin or Ethereum is vital throughout the growth section, however as soon as in the market, customers determine by adopting and fascinating with the greatest functions. So, if Ethereum growth presents a bonus and you may exploit that, that is nice.

The vital plenty we want are ones of customers, builders, buyers, and innovators, not simply miners.

In the long run, each Bitcoin and Ethereum are going to be viable platforms, every attracting the forms of functions that greatest match the respective platform traits.


One other solution to view the cryptography area is when it comes to Bitcoin Apps and Blockchain Apps. Ethereum is squarely entrenched in the Blockchain Apps house which is a fairly imaginative one. Its superiority shines through the implementation of superior decentralized functions whereas Bitcoin’s blockchain has limitations, regardless of proposed overlay protocols, facet chain tasks and different Bitcoin enchancment proposals.

To suppose that Bitcoin is the solely wanted cryptocurrency/blockchain implies a lack of expertise for the area of cryptography-based laptop science which is the bigger theme at play. That may be like saying that Fortran was the solely language wanted again in 1957 when it was deployed by IBM who developed it, simply because it loved some success then as the first industrial high-level programming language. Or, if houses have been simply invented, saying that constructing houses with wooden from bushes is the solely solution to construct them. And let’s not overlook what Ford mentioned in 1922: “Any customer can have a car painted any color that he wants so long as it is black.”

Lots of the arguments for Bitcoin dominance are biased by self-fulfilling prophecies or wishful situations. The cat is already out of the bag in relation to innovation and adoption in different cryptocurrency protocols, and there may be merely no actual cause why Bitcoin is destined to succeed by itself, and that different different protocols would fail. Bitcoin and its blockchain don’t provide a silver bullet in relation to decentralized functions growth. There’s exhausting work concerned, however that work is loads simpler with Ethereum.

Whenever you speak to builders, and see the stage of exercise round the Ethereum expertise, you’ll shortly notice that Ethereum is spurring enterprise and societal innovation at the world stage, whereas opening the door to a brand new class of functions, by no means seen earlier than. Ethereum is main the pack in decentralized functions protocols due to the assist and vibrancy of its group members who’re being drawn by the superiority of its platform capabilities.

However Ethereum is underneath no phantasm that this received’t be a step-wise course of, because it goals to step by step remedy more and more larger issues, whereas beginning with the extra primary, easy and straight-forward ones.

If Bitcoin has proven us the future of cash, Ethereum is pointing to the way forward for decentralized software program functions.

In case you are nonetheless unsure, ask your developer.

William Mougayar is a particular advisor to Eth Dev’s govt administrators. His work in expertise spans 33 years as a 4x entrepreneur, ebook creator, speaker, marketing consultant, mentor and angel investor who beforehand held senior positions at Hewlett-Packard and Cognizant. He blogs on startups and the cryptocurrency economic system at Startup Management.

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